Dietary Health Across Generations

It’s common to blame individuals for the old Christian sins of sloth and gluttony. But that has never made much sense, at least not scientifically. Gary Taubes has discussed this extensively, and so look to his several books for more info about why applying Christian theology to diet, nutrition, and health is not a wise strategy for evidence-based medicine and public health policy.

Yes, Americans in particular would be wise to do something about their health in a society where 88% of the adult population has one or more symptoms of metabolic syndrome with about three-quarters being overweight and about half diabetic or prediabetic (Joana Araújo, Jianwen Cai, June Stevens. “Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016”; for more info, see The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill or Science Daily). Consider, these statistics are even worse for the younger generations. But let’s put this in even greater context. It’s not only that each generation is unhealthier than the last for this declining health is being inherited from before birth. There is now an obesity epidemic among 6 month old babies. I doubt anyone thinks it’s reasonable to blame babies. Should babies eat less and exercise more?

This goes back a while. European immigrants in the early 1900s noticed how American children were much chubbier than their European counterparts. By the 1950s, there was already a discussion of an obesity epidemic, as it was becoming noticeable with the younger generations. We are several generations into this modern industrialized diet of highly processed starchy carbs, added sugar, and seed oils. Much of this is caused by worsening environmental conditions, from harmful chemicals to industrial food system. The effects would begin in the womb, but the causality can actually extend across numerous generations.

This is called epigenetics, what determines which genes get expressed and how. And this epigenetic effect is magnified by the microbiome we inherit as well, since microbes help determine some of the epigenetic effect, involving short-chain fatty acids that can be obtained either through plant or animal foods (Fiber or Not: Short-Chain Fatty Acids and the Microbiome). This is important, as it is easier and more straightforward to manipulate our microbiome than our epigenetics, or at least our knowledge is more clear about the former. By changing our diet, we can change our microbiome. And by changing our microbiome, we can change our epigenetics and that of our children and grandchildren.

The dietary aspect is the most basic component, in that some diets seem to have an effect directly on the epigenome itself, however the microbiome may or may not be involved — for example, there is “recent evidence that KD [ketogenic diet] influences the epigenome through modulation of adenosine metabolism as a plausible antiepileptogenic mechanism of the diet” (Theresa A. Lusardi & Detlev Boison, Ketogenic Diet, Adenosine, Epigenetics, and Antiepileptogenesis). It’s been proven for about a century now that the ketogenic diet is the most effective treatment for epileptic seizures, but there has been much debate about why. Now we might know the reason. The mechanism appears to be epigenetic.

This is not exactly new knowledge (Health From Generation To Generation). Such cross-generational influences have been known since earlier last century, but sadly such knowledge is not epigenetically inherited by each succeeding generation. Francis M. Pottenger Jr studied the health of cats on severely malnourished and well-nourished diets — by the third generation the malnourished cats were no longer capable of breeding and so there was no fourth generation. This doesn’t perfectly translate to the present human diet, although it does make one wonder. Many of our diseases of civilization seem to be at least partly caused by malnourishment. This is a public health epidemic as national security crisis.

Here is the question that comes to mind: In this modern industrialized diet, what generation of malnourishment are we at now? And if as a society we changed public health policies and medical practice right now, how many generations would it take to reverse the trend and fully undo the damage? To end on a positive note, we could potentially turn it around within this century: “Dr. Pottenger’s research also showed that the health of the cats could be recovered if the diet were returned to a healthy one by the second generation; however, even then it took four generations for some of the cats to show no symptoms of allergies” (Carolyn Biggerstaff, Pottenger’s Cats – an early window on epigenetics).

So, what are we waiting for?

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To give you some idea of how long our society has experienced declining health, check out some of my earlier posts:

Malnourished Americans
Ancient Atherosclerosis?
The Agricultural Mind

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Videos, podcasts, and articles on epigenetics as related to diet, nutrition, microbiome, health, etc with some emphasis on paleo and ketogenic viewpoints:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nutriepigenomics
from Wikipedia

Changes in the diet affect epigenetics via the microbiota
from EurekAlert!

Diet and the epigenome
Yi Zhang and Tatiana G. Kutateladze

Dietary Epigenetics: New Frontiers
by Austin Perlmutter

RHR: The Latest Discoveries in Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, and Epigenetics
by Chris Kresser

Epigenetics, Methylation, and Gene Expression
by Kevin Cann

Epigenetics: Will It Change the Way We Treat Disease?
by Kissairis Munoz

Hacking Your Genes Through Epigenetics and Targeted Nutrigenomics
by Daniel Rash

The Promise of Paleo-Epigenetics
by Jennifer Raff

Dawn of Paleoepigenomics
by Zachary Cofran

37: Robb Wolf – Diets, Epigenetics, Longevity, and Going Foodless for 9 Days
by Andy Petranek

Epigenetics and the Paleo Diet
from The Paleo Diet

Paleo, Epigenetics, and Your Weight
from Paleo Leap

EP157: Improving Mental Health with Epigenetics, Diet & Exercise with Alex Swanson
from Paleo Valley

Epigenetics Warning: Are You Wrecking Your Kids’ Health?
by Louise Hendon

EPISODE 64: Epigenetics 101 with Bailey Kirkpatrick
from Phoenix Helix

Episode 90 – Dr. Lucia Aronica studies keto and epigenetics
by Brian Williamson

Can Keto Affect Your Genes?
from KetoNutrition

Energy & Epigenetics 1: The Infant Brain is Unique
by Jack Kruse

Dr. David Perlmutter: Intermittent Fasting, Epigenetics & What Sugar Really Does To Your Brain
by Abel James

Epigenetic Explanations For Why Cutting Sugar May Make You Feel Smarter
by Caitlin Aamodt

Eating Sweet, Fatty Foods During Pregnancy is Linked to ADHD in Children
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

High Fat, Low Carb Diet Might Epigenetically Open Up DNA and Improve Mental Ability
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

A Child’s Mental Fitness Could Be Epigenetically Influenced by Dad’s Diet
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

Dad’s Drinking Could Epigenetically Affect Son’s Sensitivity and Preference for Alcohol
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

B Vitamins Protect Against Harmful Epigenetic Effects of Air Pollution
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

Vitamin D Adjusts Epigenetic Marks That Could Hinder A Baby’s Health
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

Could We Use Epigenetics and Diet to Fix Binge Eating?
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

Early Epigenetic Nutrition ‘Memory’ Could Program You for Obesity Later in Life
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

The Consequences of a Poor Diet Could Epigenetically Persist Despite Improving Eating Habits
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

Epigenetic Transfer of Nutrition ‘Memory’ Ends Before Great-Grandchildren
by Bailey Kirkpatrick

How your grandparents’ life could have changed your genes
by Tim Spector

Nutrition & the Epigenome
from University of Utah

The epigenetics diet: A barrier against environmental pollution
from University of Alabama at Birmingham

How Epigenetics May Help Explain the Complexity of Autism Spectrum Disorder
from Zymo Research

Epigenetics, Health and the Mind
from PBS with John Denu

Eating for two risks harm to the baby
by Laura Donnelly and Leah Farrar

Micronutrients in Psychiatry: Sound Science or Just Hype?
by Seth J. Gillihan

Epigenetics: A New Bridge between Nutrition and Health
by Sang-Woon Choi and Simonetta Friso

Role of diet in epigenetics: a review
by Abhina Mohanan and Raji Kanakkaparambil

The science behind the Dutch Hunger Winter
from Youth Voices

Epigenetic Marks From Parents Could Influence Embryo Development and Future Health
by Tim Barry

Can Your Diet Epigenetically Shape Your Child’s Health?
by Janeth Santiago Rios

Epigenetic Insights on Nutrition, Hormones and Eating Behavior
by Janeth Santiago Rios

Paternal Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Influence Epigenetic Inheritance
by Estephany Ferrufino

How Diet Can Change Your DNA
by Renee Morad

Food that shapes you: how diet can change your epigenome
by Cristina Florean

The Unknown Link: Epigenetics, Metabolism, and Nutrition
by Nafiah Enayet

Obesity, Epigenetics, and Gene Regulation
by Jill U. Adams

Epigenetics and Epigenomics: Implications for Diabetes and Obesity
by Evan D. Rosen et al

Epigenetic switch for obesity
from Science Daily

Epigenetics between the generations: We inherit more than just genes
from Science Daily

Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes
by R. Lambrot et al

Diet-Induced Obesity in Female Mice Leads to Offspring Hyperphagia, Adiposity, Hypertension, and Insulin Resistance
by Anne-Maj Samuelsson et al

Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic disease and impacts renal health in offspring
by Sarah J. Glastras

Transgenerational Epigenetic Mechanisms in Adipose Tissue Development
by Simon Lecoutre et al

Your Grandma’s Diet Could Have Made You Obese, Mouse Study Suggests
by Kashmira Gandery

Your Diet Affects Your Grandchildren’s DNA, Scientists Say
by Christopher Wanjek

You Are What Your Grandparents Ate
by Maria Rodale

People who eat too much fast food could cause heart disease in their great grandchildren by Jasper Hamill

Eating Badly When Pregnant Might Make Your Kid Fat
by Zak Stone

Perinatal Western Diet Consumption Leads to Profound Plasticity and GABAergic Phenotype Changes within Hypothalamus and Reward Pathway from Birth to Sexual Maturity in Rat
by Julie Paradis et al

A Maternal “Junk Food” Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Promotes Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rat Offspring
by S. A. M. Bayol et al

Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring
by María Teresa Ramírez-López et al

A maternal junk food diet alters development of opioid pathway in the offspring
from Science Daily

‘Junk food’ moms have ‘junk food’ babies
from Science Daily

Born to Be Junk Food Junkies
by Linda Wasmer Andrews

Reality check: Do babies inherit junk food addictions from their moms?
by Carmen Chai

Bad Eating Habits Start in the Womb
by Kristin Wartman

Could Over-Snacking While Pregnant Predispose Children to Be Obese?
by Natasha Geiling

Overeating in pregnancy could lead to child obesity
by John von Radowitz

Eating for two puts unborn child at risk of junk addiction
by James Randerson

Craving for junk food ‘inherited’
from BBC

Craving for junk food ‘begins in the womb’
by Fran Yeoman

Hooked on junk food in the womb
by Fiona MacRae

How pregnant mums who ‘eat for 2’ can make their babies fat
by Victoria Fletcher