Face Masks and Novel Coronavirus

There has been much discussion about wearing face masks. The basic purpose is to prevent the spread of viruses, specifically the novel coronavirus, although many masks will also protect against bacteria, air particles, pollutants, and fumes. As for viruses, there are two sides to the equation, what protects you from exposure if others are infected and what protects others from exposure if you are infected. Some argue that basic cloth masks are only effective for protecting others and so you have to hope every infected person around you is wearing a mask. For many of us who aren’t immunocompromised, our main concern is more about protecting others in case we become infected — mask-wearing is caring.

Now about the kinds of mask. I don’t know about elsewhere, but this town has been flooded with cloth masks. Our family has a wide selection of different designs and styles, some procured from workplaces and local organizations while others made with love by family members. Finding a mask that works for each individual is a challenge, as form-fitting, ear comfort, and breathability are the desired traits of a good mask. However, for those who do have health concerns and find themselves in the vulnerable demographics, there are even greater issues for a quality mask. This is where one turns to products being sold, some cheaper and others not so much. The more advanced ones offer higher levels of filtration than an N95 of KN95.

The Vogmask apparently is one of the better face masks on the market. It’s popular and, according to research, highly effective; if pricey. It’s comparable to the also popular and effective Cambridge face mask. Vogmask and Cambridge are basically the same design and material — a person working at one of the companies supposedly left to start the other company. Cambridge seems to be the more well established of the two. They’ve been top ranked for years now, whereas Vogmask is only now catching up, but determining which is better depends on many factors. One would have to look more closely at comparisons in making a decision.

Furthermore, there are similar quality products from Dettol, Breathe Healthy, Airinum, Debrief Me, OnroadCo, and other companies. Another option is Respro that has replaceable filters, but they have to be replaced every month and aren’t cheap either (Product Review: Respro vs. Vogmask Personal Air Pollution Masks). Some claim Cambridge and Respro offer higher filtration than Vogmask (Vogmask Review – All You Need To Know | Breathe Safe AirCambridge Mask – The Best Reusable Respirator? | Breathe Safe Air; & What Are The Differences Between Vogmask and Cambridge Mask for Chronic Illness? A Comprehensiv, e Review), but it’s confusing as Vogmask has different products with different standards depending on the country. Some of these comparisons are about filtration of pollution, allergens, and such; not necessarily viruses.

Even if Cambridge overall might be better, some claim that, “When it comes to viral protection, Vogmask is the better choice” (Reusable Masks – Cambridge Mask Vs Vogmask | Breathe Safe Air). For purposes of control of viral infection, the masks without valves are preferable, assuming you care about the lives of others (A Growing Body Of Research Highlights The Importance Of Wearing Face Masks). It might be added that other companies produce face masks with high viral filtration: Respro, Re-Mask, O2 Canada, and Debrief Me (12 Best Reusable Respirators – Cambridge Mask Alternatives). Re-Mask and Aropec offers a face mask without a valve; Aropec is another great anti-viral mask (Aropec Anti-Viral Mask Review – 99% Reduction in Viruses). For something really different, consider the Purely KN95 Mask which has a small attached fan that increases flow of fresh, filtered air into mask.

Some complaints about Vogmask are what one hears with any such face mask. For example, they can be hard to breathe in but others don’t find this problematic. Vogmask does make products with one or two valves to ease exhalation. One reviewer preferred Vogmask, even though it could fog up his glasses, a problem he said he had with every other kind of mask he had tried (maybe he has an oddly shaped face). Another issue is they only protect well to the degree they fit well. A benefit of Vogmask is that they come in multiple sizes and a cinch strap can be added to improve a tighter fit.

If you want to know the technical details of each kind of Vogmask product, there is a page that gives the specs and includes info on government standards and test results: “95% Particle Penetration Filtering Efficiency, Filter class provides >99.9% Viral and Bacterial Filtering Efficiency, Safe and Comfortable Breathing Resistance, Valves Tested for inward valve leakage.” Also, see the third-party analysis from Nelson Labs, Viral Filtration Efficiency (VFE) Final Report. As a side note, Nelson Labs has also tested the products of Cambridge and Re-Mask. One reviewer pointed out, though, that they had to request Cambridge’s test results, as opposed to Vogmask that publicly shares their lab certificates — greater transparency is commendable.

By the way, “Vogmask products are also long-lasting – their obsolescence date is 3 years from the date of the manufacturing; the masks can be safely used for about 1 year in moderately contaminated environments and for 5-6 months in environments contaminated with high levels of particulate matter in the air” (Our Vogmask Review for Wildfire Smoke and Air Pollution). Someone else suggested it could be used longer: “The middle filter layer can be used for up to three years, but most users replace with a new one every year” (Coronavirus: Reusable Masks That Work).

Below are some reviews. Keep in mind that some of the reviews are more recent than others. Vogmask has put out new and improved face masks the past few years, which may include changes made since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. So, it’s not clear how the present line of Vogmask products might compare against the other brands. At the very least, it’s safe to say that they are among the best available. On the other hand, not all Vogmask products are equal, as they offer different levels of filtration; and so shop carefully for your individual needs and purpose.

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Vogmask Review For Pollution and Allergies (Plus Head Strap)

Vogmask N99 (what does N99 mean)

If you’re wondering what N99 means you’re not alone. Labeling on face masks can be confusing.

N99 is the mask’s efficiency level. Pay close attention to the number 99. On a face mask marked 99 it will filter 99% of particulates 2.5 in the air. Particulate matter 2.5 are particles that measure 2.5 micrometers and are a mixture of solid and liquid droplets floating in the air (they are invisible to our eyes).

Particulate matter creates the haze we often see in the sky and the particles are so small the can be inhaled deep into our lungs. The strongest efficiency levels are usually 99% and 95% for allergy masks.

An N99 mask won’t protect against oil based pollutants, however Vogmask also uses a carbon filter in their masks that trap chemicals and oil based pollutions. Think of the mask as a dual filter.

If you use a surgical mask you likely won’t be getting the PM 2.5 protection or the carbon filter. A Vogmask will protect from PM 2.5 and comes with a carbon filter too!

Vogmask Review – The Most Stylish Anti-Pollution Facemask?

Vogmask: effectiveness and protection against viruses

Vogmask is well-known over the globe. It had undergone extensive evaluations in different regions worldwide.

In South Korea, it was awarded KF94 certification from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. China also issued a certificate KN-95, which means that Vogmask meets a 95% filtering limit for particles under .3-micron size.

Vogmasks were reviewed and certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Models like Vogmask N95 are proven to filter approximately 95% of particles found in the air. It’s also one of the most common face equipment available for the public.

The primary purpose of a Vogmask is protection against airborne particles, allergens, germs, odors, and scents. It can also intercept other various contaminants. Vogmask products are proven to be 99.9% effective again 0.3, 2.5, and 10-micron particulate matter (air particles). They can also filter dust particles with a size smaller than 0.254 microns.

What about other dangerous viruses like COVID-19?

Theoretically, N95 can be effective even against coronavirus. But the results of a Vogmask review conducted in 2014 have shown ambivalent outcomes. But it’s mostly because the results are hard to measure retrospectively and not due to how they perform.

At the same time, clinical reviews suggest that Vogmask N95 offers undeniable protective advantages over standard medical masks.

There’s also Vogmask N99, which is available in microfiber and organic cotton versions. It offers two built-in valves, which provide multi-layered filtration of microns with a size smaller than 0.3-microns.

Numerous Vogmask reviews argue that this gear offers an appropriate level of protection to ward off viruses and bacteria. The current Viral Filtration Efficiency stands at about 99% for the abovementioned N95 and N99 Vogmask models.

Vogmask Review (Effective For Dust And Allergies?)

Does Vogmask Filter Out Viruses?

One of the common questions raised is whether Vogmask is effective in protecting against viruses, particularly flu. It is known that N95 masks are certified to block 95% of PM2.5 particles but is it effective for viruses?

A study in Hong Kong involving 407 participants has shown that surgical mask is effective to reduce the spread of influenza viruses. Typical surgical facemask offers lower filter protection than N95 masks.

As Vogmask is N95-rated, it is fair to state that it offers reasonable protection against the flu virus. However, it is important to note that different types of viruses may have different sizes. In another study, it is found that the penetration rate of viruses measuring 10nm – 80 nm may exceed the 5% threshold.

Vogmask Review – All You Need To Know | Breathe Safe Air

One thing that I appreciate with Vogmask is that they provide links to their lab certificates. Not many mask creators show these certificates publicly, however, Vogmask has them available to everyone.

Vogmask conforms to the KF94 standard from South Korea. This is a globally recognised standard for fine dust protection and is roughly equivalent to FFP2, and performs slightly worse than N95.

The masks also conform to the N95 standard but they do NOT hold an official N95 rating (CDC). That is to say, Vogmask meets the N95 standard for filtration efficiency (< 95%) however, it does not hold an N95 rating (Vogmask).

Vogmask also conforms to the NIOSH standards for inhalation and exhalation resistance along with valve leakage. This means that Vogmask should be comfortable to breathe through (Vogmask).

On top of this, these masks also features bacterial and viral filtration, and have been tested by Nelson Labs for each.

For bacteria at 3 ± 0.3 micrometres, the masks feature 99.9% filtration. This will provide filtration against many, but not all, kinds of bacteria. It is worth noting, however, that even though they may not be tested for it, many masks are capable of filtering even smaller particles (Vogmask).

For viruses at 3 ± 0.3 Vogmask also features 99.9% filtration. This means that Vogmask will be very efficient at filtering larger viral particles. Many viruses are smaller than 3 micrometres, however (Vogmask). If you are interested in an anti-viral mask, check out the Aropec anti-viral mask.

As mentioned earlier, it is important to note that while Vogmask does not guarantee any protection against smaller particles, that some N95 respirators are quite effective at small particle filtration even though they are not rated for it (3M).

Since Vogmask is not officially rated as N95, and since N95 is rated for filtration at 0.3 micrometres, there is no guarantee that your mask will filter viral particles. However, respirators do tend to provide some protection against smaller particles.

Compared to other masks on the market, Vogmask sits in the middle of filtration efficiency. There are some masks which perform better – certain Cambridge Mask (N99 equivalent) and Respro (FFP3) models perform better, at least in regards to fine dust filtrationRe-Mask masks also offer more filtration, along with the Earth Filters that the company makes.

However, there are also many reusable masks that are rated around N95, and many hold no rating at all. Vogmask is a mask that you can trust to provide around 95% filtration for fine dust particles – provided of course, that it is fitted correctly.

Another interesting fact that I came across while researching was that Vogmask appears to offer different models to different regions. Vogmask.com sells the models listed above and is targeted at a U.S audience. These masks have a KF94 rating.

However, Vogmask-Europe.com offers N99CV and N99 organic models. These masks are rated KF94, KN95, and claim to meet N99 criteria (but as with the U.S models, they do NOT have an N99 certification).

These masks also hold the FFP1 R rating, which is (according to Vogmask support) due to their small size when is intended for youths.

Therefore, rather confusingly, it appears that EU Vogmask models meet (but don’t hold) N99 certification. U.S (and global) models meet (but don’t hold) N95 certification.

Coronavirus: Reusable Masks That Work

1. Vogmask
Vogmask can filter particles as small as 0.254 microns in the air (including PM 0.3 / PM 2.5 / PM 10 suspended particles), such as bacteria, viruses, allergens, dust, odors, mold spores, mold, volcanic particles, etc. Proven to be very useful against air pollution.

2. Breathe Easy
Breathe Healthy uses advanced AEGIS antibacterial treatment technology to form a colorless, odorless, positively charged antibacterial protective layer on the surface of the product. When exposed to microorganisms, the C-18 molecules in the protective layer will pierce the cell membrane and let the charge impact the cells. After testing, the protective layer on the mask continues to be effective throughout its useful life. It can filter particles as small as 1.0 micron in the air, prevent the body from inhaling airborne bacteria and allergens, and is very helpful for preventing flu and reducing the incidence of asthma .

3. Cambridge Mask
Known as the British pollution solution, the filtration system of Cambridge Mask™ combines a particulate filter layer and a military-grade carbon filter. It has been tested by the Nelson Lab in the United States and has been certified to meet the N99 particle filtration standards. Particulate contamination provides nearly 100% protection. The inner layer of the mask is a military-grade carbon filter developed by the British Ministry of Defence to filter out viruses, bacteria and gaseous pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, benzine and formaldehyde.

Cambridge Masks are available in two versions:
Cambridge Mask BASIC meets N95 standards, can filter 95% of particles, bacteria and viruses in the air. It can be used for 90 hours.
Cambridge Mask PRO Meet N99 (higher than N95) standards, can filter 99.6% of particles, bacteria and viruses in the air. It can be used for up to 340 hours.

Do Air Masks Help With Pollution? Which Ones Actually Matter?

Dettol Air Mask: Amazon India and Dettol have launched an air mask that claims to protect you from haze, dust, pollen. It is has an adjustable nose that fits the face and is air tight. It comes with two filters and has ear loops that can be adjusted. The mask is all black and comes with its pouch. The air mask is priced at Rs. 699.

The Vogmask: The Vogmask claims to be better than the N95 masks that are available on the market. These come in all shapes, sizes, and styles. The Vogmask is however a bit on the expensive side. It starts at Rs. 2,000. On the other hand, you can hand wash them and you can use for longer period of time.

These Vogmask masks also have a second layer that helps you deal with stuffiness during summer – however we still found it stuffy to wear. But it could be because we have been just getting used to the concept of covering our noses. So, whether you are a runner, cyclist or even a brisk walker. you should check this one out.

Cambridge Masks: These are made a bit differently but results are similar to the Vogmask. There are three layers to this mask – one to block dust, other to curb PM 2.5 particulate matter and the last layer is to fight bacteria. The Cambridge masks were launched in China first, and now, they are in India starting at Rs. 2000, hoping to influence users.

10 Fashionable Face Masks People With Chronic Illness Recommend

Vogmask is a filtering respirator intended for general public use that can help protect you against allergens, poor air quality and airborne contaminants. It can filter out up to 99 percent of airborne particles. To be effective, a respirator must be sized to fit tightly against your face and create a seal. They are also known for being hot and uncomfortable to wear. The experience has been described as breathing through a blanket, and may not be an option for those who have difficulty breathing. Some come with an exhaust valve to increase their comfort. […]

Padi may be a dive training organization, but its affiliated Padi Gear website offers athletic wear, now including face masks. Padi Gear’s face masks, which feature five different sea-themed patterns, are made from recycled plastic. The multilayered mask is designed to be breathable, and each masks comes with five carbon filters. Padi Gear masks are secured using elastic ear straps. […]

Rafi Nova masks offer three layers of cotton fabric with a built-in filter that is designed to make these face masks both effective and breathable. These masks also have an additional pocket to add another filter layer. The company offers the masks in several types of straps, from ties to around-the-ear elastics. Rafi Nova also makes a mask with a clear panel in the front for those who are Deaf or hard of hearing. […]

Breathe Healthy face masks are designed to protect against dust, pollen, allergens and the flu. It is made with an antimicrobial agent that kills germs and lasts as long as the mask, even after multiple washings.[…]

This neoprene respirator is designed for landscaping or outdoor work, but it provides all-purpose protection and can filtrate up to 99.9 percent of all particulates and dust. Its dual-valve exhaust provides one-way easy breathing, expels moisture and optimizes temperature. […]

Cambridge masks are washable and reusable. They can filter out almost 100 percent of particulate matter, allergens or irritants, air pollution and harmful airborne pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.

Buying face masks with filters? Here’s what medical experts recommend.

1. Avocado Green Mattress Organic Cotton Face Mask
The maker of eco-friendly mattresses is making 100-percent organic cotton fabric face masks available in packs of four. They can allow for a separate filter to be inserted. The brand has so far made more than 130,000 non-medical grade masks, and will be donating on percent of sales to the EcoHealth Alliance.

2. Casetify Reusable Cloth Mask
The technology brand is pivoting to making reusable masks. The masks come in five different colors and are made of cotton material — plus, they come already fitted with a filter, plus two additional ones. For every mask sold, Casetify will donate a surgical mask to a medical worker in need via Direct Relief. The company is also selling packs of 10 interchangeable carbon filters.

3. Hedley & Bennett The Wake Up & Fight Mask
These reusable masks come in plenty of different styles and are designed to be used with a filter, such as a HEPA filter, inserted within the fabric. The masks were developed with a pediatric orthopedic surgeon and are one-size-fits-most. Each purchase provides a mask for you and a donation of one for a frontline worker.

4. Honeycomb Carbon Filter Masks (Out of Stock)
This mask comes with a disposable carbon filter inside layers of cotton and polyester. The outer layer is mesh and comes in five different colors. These masks are both washable and reusable.

5. Kinglight
These activated carbon filters come in packs of 10, and are made of non-woven fabric and cotton. The filter’s five layers effectively filter out emissions, exhaust and other particulates.

6. Ministry of Supply Mask Kit (Pre-Order)
Each mask, made of washable fabric, comes with 10 disposable filters. The masks are made out of 3D Print-Knit technology, a knit that’s 3D printed. For each mask sold, the company is donating a mask to frontline healthcare workers at Boston Medical Center.

7. OUBA Face Mask Filters
These individual filters are made with activated charcoal and five layers of cotton. These filters help filter out particulates like pollen, exhaust and allergens. Filters come in packs of 20 disposable filters and can easily be inserted to any mask with a pocket.

8. Public Goods K95 Face Masks (Out of Stock)
These non-medical masks are KN95-certified, meaning they adhere to the Chinese standards for respirator masks, according to the CDC. These masks include five layers of polypropylene and cotton filters and have a nose clip to fit the mask more tightly to your face.

9. Vida Mask Filter Replacements
The retailer is selling non-medical face masks, in addition to packs of five insertable filters designed to block airborne contaminants. VIDA recommends users change out the filter every seven days.

10. Vistaprint Face Masks
The printing company has created their own reusable masks that allow for a filter to be inserted. The masks come in three colorful designs and have four filtration layers: a textile exterior, replaceable fiber filter, a cloth layer and a 100-percent cotton inner layer. The company is also selling packs of 10 disposable filters, that can be used for up to 12 hours.

11. Vogmask
These filter masks claim to filter out airborne particulate .3 microns or larger, and additionally come with an exhalation valve and noseband for a tighter fit. The mask is made out of cotton and spandex, and comes in five sizes — and plenty of colorful designs. Most masks are currently sold out, but expected to be restocked soon.

Disaster Capitalism Causes Disasters

Many have wondered why some places have been hit hard by the pandemic (Spain, Italy, New York, etc) whereas others still are barely affected. Some likely factors are public transportation, population density, and multiple generation households. Socioeconomic conditions and probably inequality also is involved, as poverty correlates with higher rates of immunological compromise and dysfunction because of stress, food deserts, parasite load, lack of healthcare, and such.

Air pollution, for example, increases asthma which is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. And, of course, poor areas tend to have far worse air pollution, not to mention heavy metal toxicity from old paint and pipes, toxic soil from old factories, and toxic waste dumps. But it turns out that the virus SARS-CoV-2 can also be carried by air pollution particles: Ron Brackett reports that, “Air samples were collected at two sites in Bergamo province in northern Italy’s Lombardy region, the area of the country hit hardest by the pandemic. Testing found a gene highly specific to COVID-19 in multiple samples from the province, one of the most polluted in Italy” (Researchers Find Coronavirus on Pollution Particles). That might be another explanation for why dense urban areas like New York City could worsen infection and death rates.

Consider the example of Italy (Conn Hallinan, How Austerity and Anti-Immigrant Politics Left Italy Exposed; & John Buell, Disaster Capitalism and the Real Culprit in the Italian Covid-19 Catastrophe). Since the 2008 recession, the number of Italians in extreme poverty has doubled which no puts it at more than 10% of the population (Eva Pastorelli & Andrea Stocchiero, Inequalities in Italy) with another 6.8% barely above poverty (Federico Razetti, Poor, scarcely poor and almost poor: what’s going on in Italy?) — combined together, that equates to around 10 million Italians, which is more than the entire population of New York City. Bergamo province is in northern Italy. Even worst poverty is found further south, the location of 70% of the poor (Michael Huang, 10 Facts About Poverty In Italy That Everyone Should Know).

Two of the countries most devastated by COVID-19 are Italy and Spain, both of which have suffered from high rates of poverty combined with economic austerity. As in the United States, it’s the most impoverished and underprivileged who bear the brunt. Shockingly, in New York City, almost half the population is at or near the poverty level with one in five fully in poverty (NYC Opportunity, Poverty in NYC). Although NYC poverty has dropped slightly, inequality remains as high as ever (Elizabeth Kim, NYC Poverty Level Drops To Record Lows, But Income Inequality Persists). It’s unsurprising that such immense poverty and inequality crippled the public health response in such places and specifically harmed those worse off, such as seen in Spain (Guy Hedgecoe, In Spain, austerity legacy cripples coronavirus fight; Brais Fernandez, Spain’s Hospitals Have Suffered Death by a Thousand Cuts; & Stephen Burgen, Poor and vulnerable hardest hit by pandemic in Spain). Such pandemic inequality has been seen all across the United States with poor minorities hit the hardest.

For a combination of reasons, the poor are hit hardest and specifically where poverty is concentrated and exacerbated by high inequality. And this pandemic will only worsen poverty and inequality, unless we demand reforms that are both democratic and progressive. But if we let disaster capitalism run rampant, it will bring on further disasters.

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Austerity in the Age of COVID-19: A Match Made in Hell?
by Paul Rogers

The Impact of COVID-19 Is All Down to Inequality
by Mariano Aguirre

How austerity measures hurt the COVID-19 response
by Cristina Fominaya

As Coronavirus Deepens Inequality, Inequality Worsens Its Spread
by Max Fisher and Emma Bubola

The coronavirus pandemic is already increasing inequality
by Steve Schifferes

Covid-19 shows why tackling inequality benefits everyone
by Han Fook Kwang

The pandemic strengthens the case for universal basic income
by Ishaan Tharoor

The Pandemic Now And Going Into The Future

“I think people haven’t understood that this isn’t about the next couple of weeks. This is about the next two years.”
~Michael Osterholm, infectious-disease epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota

“Everyone wants to know when this will end. That’s not the right question. The right question is: How do we continue?”
~Devi Sridhar, public-health expert at the University of Edinburgh

A week ago, the highest daily Covid-19 death count for the US was more than 2,000. Now it reached over 4,500 over the past day. That is an expected exponential increase. And that is with strong measures like lockdowns taken place across the country. When doing a recount by adding in all deaths now known, China increased their Wuhan deaths by 50%. That is probably true in many places where hospitals were overwhelmed and many died without medical care.

This isn’t to imply China was necessarily being deceptive in covering up the real numbers. For a while now, medical staff in the US have said the same thing about hospitals here underreporting Covid-19 deaths. Healthcare worker deaths may also be higher. In another article, there was shared the photographs and stories of some of these people who died while helping others. I noticed that all of them looked overweight, indicating metabolic syndrome which is one of the main comorbidities.

By the way, one expert talks about five stages for the pandemic. We are in the second phase which is mitigation following the initial containment. After that will be another period of containment while we wait for a vaccine, other treatments, and improved lab testing. That could take us into next year, but the economy will begin to restart during this time.

As communities begin to open up again, the government will have to become very strict, systematic, and targeted in quarantining the infected. Cleaning and disinfection of public places will become a priority, as will the use of protective gear. The fourth stage comes when we have a vaccine, assuming we get one in the relatively near future. The hope is to be in a more advanced situation of containment before a second wave of infections might hit in the fall.

With everything reasonably under control, we end with the last stage where we assess the situation, determine successes and failures, and then prepare for the next pandemic. That means making pandemic preparation central to national security.

This situation, of course, has long term consequences. Donald Trump being president exacerbates this. Even before the pandemic, his actions as leader were driving a wedge between the US and its allies. Many foreign governments were seeing the US as no longer trustworthy and reliable. Trump’s attacking and defunding the WHO, if somewhat deserved, has further undermined US authority — specifically among the G7. The US might never recover its position in the world. This might be the end of US hegemony.

Now most likely Trump will be re-elected. So four more years of more of the same, precisely at the moment when confidence has been shaken in national leadership and the federal government. The main promise Trump made was that he would make the American economy great again, but now it will be in shambles. All his scapegoating will only go so far. While Americans suffer, people will want actions and reform, not snarky blame games for political gain.

For years and maybe decades to come, we might not only be recovering from the pandemic and all that is related to it but a more general sense of decline and malaise, if not further catastrophes that become existential crises. If we are to enter a re-building phase, it’s going to require entirely new leadership in both of the main parties. We can hope for an era of large-scale reform that will transform our society, but it’s hard to see hope at the moment.

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Some articles of interest:

Some Thoughts On Thinking Critically In Times Of Uncertainty, And The Trap of Lopsided Skepticism: Coronaspiracy Theory Edition
by Denise Minger

In case you didn’t notice, the cyber-world (and its 3D counterpart, I assume, but we’re not allowed to venture there anymore) is currently a hot mess of Who and what do we believe? This is zero percent surprising. Official agencies have handled COVID-19 with the all grace of a three-legged elephant—waffling between the virus being under control/not under control/OMG millions dead/wait no 60,000/let’s pack the churches on Easter!/naw, lockdown-til-August/face masks do nothing/face masks do something, but healthcare workers need them more/FACE MASKS FOR EVERY FACE RIGHT NOW PLEASE AND THANK YOU/oh no a tiger got the ‘rona!; on and on. It’s dizzying. Maddening. The opposite of confidence-instilling. And as a very predictable result, guerrilla journalism has grown to fill the void left by those who’ve failed to tell us, with any believability, what’s going on.

Exercising our investigative rights is usually a good thing. You guys know me. I’m all about questioning established narratives and digging into the forces that crafted them. It’s literally my life. Good things happen when we flex our thinking muscle, and nothing we’re told should be immune to scrutiny.

But there’s a shadow side here, too—what I’ll henceforth refer to as “lopsided skepticism.” This is what happens when we question established narratives… but not the non-established ones. More specifically, when we go so hog wild ripping apart The Official Story that we somehow have no skepticism left over for all the new stuff we’re replacing it with.

And that, my friends, is exactly what’s happening right now.

The dangerous conservative campaign against expertise
by Michael Gerson

Motivated reasoning is usually just tiresome. At its worst, it can be dangerous. Sometimes drawing the wrong lesson badly obscures a right and necessary lesson. Sometimes the interpretation of a crisis is so dramatically mistaken, so ludicrous and imprudent, that it can worsen the crisis itself.

Such is the case with conservatives who look at the coronavirus outbreak and see, of all things, the discrediting of experts and expertise. In this view, the failures of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have brought the whole profession into disrepute. The judgments of health professionals have often been no better than the folk wisdom of the Internet. The pandemic is not only further proof of the fallibility of insiders; it has revealed the inherent inaccessibility of medical truth. All of us, scientists and nonscientists, are walking blindly on the same misty moor and may stumble on medical insights.

This argument assumes an intellectual fog that is just lifting. Though we are still relatively early in the pandemic, this much seems clear: The medical experts recommended aggressive social distancing to bend the curve of infections and deaths downward. Americans generally trusted the experts. By all the evidence, aggressive social distancing is bending the curve of infections and deaths downward. And places that were earliest and most aggressive in this approach have seen the best results.

This outcome doesn’t strike me as murky. It is difficult to see how experts whose advice clearly saved tens of thousands of lives can be called discredited. It is easy, however, to see how making this false claim might undermine public adherence to their advice, which still matters greatly in the crisis.

Our Pandemic Summer
by Ed Yong

If it turns out that, say, 20 percent of the U.S. has been infected, that would mean the coronavirus is more transmissible but less deadly than scientists think. It would also mean that a reasonable proportion of the country has some immunity. If that proportion could be slowly and safely raised to the level necessary for herd immunity—60 to 80 percent, depending on the virus’s transmissibility—the U.S. might not need to wait for a vaccine. However, if just 1 to 5 percent of the population has been infected—the range that many researchers think is likelier—that would mean “this is a truly devastating virus, and we have built up no real population immunity,” said Michael Mina, an epidemiologist and immunologist at Harvard. “Then we’re in dire straits in terms of how to move forward.”

Even in the optimistic scenario, a quick and complete return to normalcy would be ill-advised. And even in the pessimistic scenario, controlling future outbreaks should still be possible, but only through an immense public-health effort. Epidemiologists would need to run diagnostic tests on anyone with COVID-19–like symptoms, quarantine infected people, trace everyone those people had contact with in the previous week or so, and either quarantine those contacts or test them too. These are the standard pillars of public health, but they’re complicated by the coronavirus’s ability to spread for days before causing symptoms. Every infected person has a lot of potential contacts, and may have unknowingly infected many of them.

The Pandemic Will Cleave America in Two
by Joe Pinsker

When someone dies, there are three ways to think about what caused it, according to Scott Frank, a professor at Case Western Reserve University’s School of Medicine. The first is the straightforward, “medical” cause of death—diagnosable things like heart disease or cancer. The second is the “actual” cause of death—that is, the habits and behaviors that over time contributed to the medical cause of death, such as smoking cigarettes or being physically inactive. The third is what Frank refers to as the “actual actual” cause of death—the bigger, society-wide forces that shaped those habits and behaviors.

In one analysis of deaths in the U.S. resulting from “social factors” (Frank’s “actual actual” causes), the top culprits were poverty, low levels of education, and racial segregation. “Each of these has been demonstrated to have independent effects on chronic-disease mortality and morbidity,” Frank said. (Morbidity refers to whether someone has a certain disease.) He expects that the same patterns will hold for COVID-19.

To begin with, the physical effects of COVID-19 are far worse for some people than others. There are two traits that seem to matter most. The first is age. Older people are at greater risk of experiencing the more devastating version of the pandemic, in part because the immune system weakens with age. Early data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that, in the U.S., the risk of dying from the disease begins to climb at around age 55, and is especially acute for those 85 and older. “I think the pattern we’re going to see clearly is an age-related pattern” of mortality, Andrew Noymer, a public-health professor at UC Irvine, said. (Younger people aren’t invulnerable to the disease, though; the CDC found in mid-March that 20-to-54-year-olds had accounted for almost 40 percent of hospitalizations known to have been caused by the disease.

The second trait that puts someone at increased risk is having a serious health condition such as diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease. These conditions seem to make cases of COVID-19 more likely to be severe or fatal, and the risks rise considerably for older adults who have any of these conditions, Frank told me.

But while everyone ages, rich and poor alike, these health conditions are not evenly distributed throughout the population. They’re more common among people with less education, less money, and less access to health care. “We know these social and economic conditions have a profound effect on chronic disease,” Frank said, “and then chronic disease has a profound effect on the mortality related to COVID.”

Useful Info On Covid-19

For covid-19, data has been coming out. Two things to keep in mind are the incubation period and the latent period. The incubation period is the time from when the individual is infected to when they show symptoms, although there are asymptomatic cases where no symptoms are experienced at all.

The average incubation period is 3 days, but it can be as short as 2 days or maybe as long as 21 days or even 24 days. The upper end is rare. Quarantine for 14 days was assumed to be sufficient for nearly all patients. Even a quarantine of less than that, if implemented strictly and widely, presumably would eliminate most infections. Is that true?

More important is the latent period. This is how long it takes from being infected to the onset of symptoms. Keep in mind that, as I understand it, covid-19 is not more contagious than the common flu with any single exposure. Rather, there is a longer potential exposure period which translates as a higher infection rate.

It’s not clear how long one carries the virus and can pass it on to others. Doctors detected the RNA of the virus in the lungs 20 days after infection. And in a study, the pathogen was found in the respiratory tract for much longer, upwards of 37 days. However, carrying the virus doesn’t necessarily mean one is infectious.

For mild cases which is most cases, the infectious period following symptoms doesn’t likely last more than 10 days, even as the virus still can be detected. To demonstrate this, researchers used samples from patients (sputum, blood, urine, stool) to try to grow the virus. On day 8, they failed to do so with patients of mild infections.

So, the fact that some can test positive for weeks might be largely irrelevant. Most patients stop what is called viral shedding in the first 5 days, although in a minority of patients with severe sickness it can go some days beyond that. The extreme cases involved pneumonia and the viral shedding continued for 10-11 days. Still, generally speaking, the most infectious period is those first few days.

Also, keep in mind that not everyone is equally infectious. An elderly couple went on a cruise ship together for a couple of weeks. The wife got infected and presumably was sick for the entire two weeks and yet the husband remained free of infection.

Someone with symptoms may infect no one else while someone without symptoms could easily infect many. It is about 1.2% of covid-19 patients that show no symptoms. On the Diamond Princess cruise ship, 322 of 621 people tested positive with no symptoms. That makes containment difficult, especially with limited ability to do testing.

About symptoms, here is a key piece of info. In a small but significant number of cases, there are no symptoms at all. In many other cases, the symptoms are minor or even atypical. We mostly hear from the media about the respiratory problems, but it can be seen in other ways. Nearly half (48.5%) of patients had digestive issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. And about 7% showed no respiratory symptoms at all.

There are other symptoms as well. Most recently, it’s been found that loss of taste and smell can be a sign of infection. About half of patients, in one cluster from Germany, experienced a change in smell or taste. Sensory loss usually follows respiratory symptoms, although not always. Another symptom is redness around the eyes, as seen in some of the worst cases.

Those without the typical respiratory problems and higher temperature don’t see a doctor or only do so much later. This can actually make these cases more severe with a longer recovery period. Yet for some reason, few people are talking about the full spectrum of potential symptoms. In many lists of symptoms, gastrointestinal distress is not mentioned at all. And the loss of senses is only now being reported on.

Bonus info: A mouse study showed that ketosis has protectin against influenza (flu). Coronavirus is different in many ways, but the body deals with viruses through the same basic mechanisms. Ketosis causes the body to produce a special kind of T cell in the lungs and also a protective layer of mucose in the lungs. The survival rate of mice was higher for the mice on a keto diet.

This might be a similar reason why ketosis is inefficient in producing excess heat. Ben Bikman speculates this has to do with the time of year, winter, when ketosis tends to happen. While fasting or in dietary restriction during winter, it would be useful for both the body to produce extra heat and for the immune system to shift into higher functioning.

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