Why are cows blamed for global warming?

“There were observed buffalo herds that took 2-3 days to pass by the settlement along the Muskingum River.”
~Moravian missionaries, Ohio Valley, 1740s

Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States
by A. N. Hristov

Overall, CH4 emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period in the contiguous United States were about 86% (medium bison population size) of the current CH4 emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States (Table 1). If the high bison population estimate is considered for this comparison, wild ruminants in the presettlement period emitted about 23% more CH4 from enteric fermentation than the current domestic ruminants in the United States.

How have enteric methane emissions from beef cattle changed over time?

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Exploring the influence of ancient and historic megaherbivore extirpations on the global methane budget
by Felisa A. Smith, John I. Hammond, Meghan A. Balk, Scott M. Elliott, S. Kathleen Lyons, Melissa I. Pardi, Catalina P. Tomé, Peter J. Wagner, and Marie L. Westover

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Credit: Frank Mitloehner (see discussion thread on Twitter)

Blake in an Age of Paine

“Paine is either a Devil or an Inspired man.”

“…the Holy Ghost who in Paine strives with Christendom as in Christ he strove with the Jews.”

“Is it a greater miracle to feed five thousand men with five loaves than to overthrow all the armies of Europe with a small pamphlet?”

“Christ died an unbeliever and if the Bishops had their way so would Paine.”

Those are quotes of William Blake writing about Thomas Paine. Blake didn’t agree with Paine’s deism. But his writings show he was quite familiar with Paine’s work and saw their influence in a positive light.

Although the story of Blake warning Paine of impending arrest might not be true, they were part of the same social circle. Still, some like to imagine what an encounter between them might have been like — here is the play In Lambeth by Jack Shepherd:

Blake: Prophet Against Empire
by David V. Erdman

Blake’s Margins: An Interpretive Study of the Annotations
by Hazard Adams

Ideology and Utopia in the Poetry of William Blake
by Nicholas M. Williams

“There is a Grain of Sand in Lambeth that Satan cannot find”, William Blake meets Thomas Paine. Dramatisation Of the Play. In Lambeth.
by Roger G. Lewis

Deists 1
by Larry Clayton

William Blake, Thomas Paine and the Bible
by Golgonooza

“To Defend the Bible in This Year 1798 Would Cost a Man His Life”
by Morton D. Paley

Flames in the Night Sky : Blake, Paine and the Meeting of the Society of Loyal Britons, Lambeth, October 10th, 1793
by Michael Phillips

Blake’s Jerusalem
by Judy Cox

Blake and Paine: Devils or Inspired Men?
by Humberto Garcia

Blake, Moravianism, and Thomas Paine: Expanding on Anna’s Previous Argument
by Viv Alexandra

Brothers in Pen
by Andy Tang

The Pain of Will
by Daniel Lizaola Lopez

Liberté, égalité, fraternité
by Beyanira Bautista

Religion and Politics
by Israel Alonso